Start To Lose Weight

New Creatinine- and Cystatin C–Based Equations to Estimate GFR without Race

  • 1. Stevens LA, Coresh J, Greene T, Levey AS. Assessing kidney function — measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate. N Engl J Med 2006;354:24732483.

  • 2. Levey AS, Coresh J, Tighiouart H, Greene T, Inker LA. Measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate: current status and future directions. Nat Rev Nephrol 2020;16:5164.

  • 3. Saran R, Robinson B, Abbott KC, et al. US Renal Data System 2018 annual data report: epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 2019;73:Suppl 1:A7A8.

  • 4. Miller WG, Jones GRD. Estimated glomerular filtration rate: laboratory implementation and current global status. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2018;25:713.

  • 5. Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:604612.

  • 6. Flamant M, Vidal-Petiot E, Metzger M, et al. Performance of GFR estimating equations in African Europeans: basis for a lower race-ethnicity factor than in African Americans. Am J Kidney Dis 2013;62:182184.

  • 7. Lewis J, Agodoa L, Cheek D, et al. Comparison of cross-sectional renal function measurements in African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and of primary formulas to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Am J Kidney Dis 2001;38:744753.

  • 8. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl 2013;3:1150.

  • 9. Inker LA, Schmid CH, Tighiouart H, et al. Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C. N Engl J Med 2012;367:2029.

  • 10. Eneanya ND, Yang W, Reese PP. Reconsidering the consequences of using race to estimate kidney function. JAMA 2019;322:113114.

  • 11. Vyas DA, Eisenstein LG, Jones DS. Hidden in plain sight — reconsidering the use of race correction in clinical algorithms. N Engl J Med 2020;383:874882.

  • 12. Warren E, Booker C, Wyden R, Lee B. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) requesting a review of the use of race-based clinical algorithms in standard medical practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, September 22, 2020.

  • 13. Agarwal A. Response to Chairman Neal re race and eGFR. Washington, DC: American Society of Nephrology, 2020.

  • 14. Levey AS, Tighiouart H, Titan SM, Inker LA. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate with vs without including patient race. JAMA Intern Med 2020;180:793795.

  • 15. Ahmed S, Nutt CT, Eneanya ND, et al. Examining the potential impact of race multiplier utilization in estimated glomerular filtration rate calculation on African-American care outcomes. J Gen Intern Med 2020;36:464471.

  • 16. Levey AS, Titan SM, Powe NR, Coresh J, Inker LA. Kidney disease, race, and GFR estimation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020;15:12031212.

  • 17. Powe NR. Black kidney function matters: use or misuse of race? JAMA 2020;324:737738.

  • 18. Shin J-I, Sang Y, Chang AR, et al. The FDA metformin label change and racial and sex disparities in metformin prescription among patients with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2020;31:18471858.

  • 19. Diao JA, Inker LA, Levey AS, Tighiouart H, Powe NR, Manrai AK. In search of a better equation — performance and equity in estimates of kidney function. N Engl J Med 2021;384:396399.

  • 20. Duggal V, Thomas I-C, Montez-Rath ME, Chertow GM, Kurella Tamura M. National estimates of CKD prevalence and potential impact of estimating glomerular filtration rate without race. J Am Soc Nephrol 2021;32:14541463.

  • 21. Inker LA, Couture SJ, Tighiouart H, et al. A new panel estimated GFR, including β2-microglobulin and β-trace protein and not including race, developed in a diverse population. Am J Kidney Dis 2020;77(5):673.e1683.e1.

  • 22. Karger AB, Eckfeldt JH, Rynders GP, et al. Long-term longitudinal stability of kidney filtration marker measurements: implications for epidemiological studies and clinical care. Clin Chem 2020;67:425433.

  • 23. Soveri I, Berg UB, Björk J, et al. Measuring GFR: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis 2014;64:411424.

  • 24. Pottel H, Hoste L, Dubourg L, et al. An estimated glomerular filtration rate equation for the full age spectrum. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2016;31:798806.

  • 25. Björk J, Grubb A, Sterner G, Nyman U. Revised equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate based on the Lund-Malmö Study cohort. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2011;71:232239.

  • 26. Pottel H, Björk J, Courbebaisse M, et al. Development and validation of a modified full age spectrum creatinine-based equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate: a cross-sectional analysis of pooled data. Ann Intern Med 2021;174:183191.

  • 27. Grubb A, Horio M, Hansson L-O, et al. Generation of a new cystatin C-based estimating equation for glomerular filtration rate by use of 7 assays standardized to the international calibrator. Clin Chem 2014;60:974986.

  • 28. Pottel H, Delanaye P, Schaeffner E, et al. Estimating glomerular filtration rate for the full age spectrum from serum creatinine and cystatin C. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017;32:497507.

  • 29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. May 28, 2020 (

  • 30. Coresh J, Selvin E, Stevens LA, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. JAMA 2007;298:20382047.

  • 31. Selvin E, Juraschek SP, Eckfeldt J, Levey AS, Inker LA, Coresh J. Calibration of cystatin C in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Am J Kidney Dis 2013;61:353354.

  • 32. Selvin E, Manzi J, Stevens LA, et al. Calibration of serum creatinine in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1988-1994, 1999-2004. Am J Kidney Dis 2007;50:918926.

  • 33. National Kidney Foundation, American Society of Nephrology. Removing race from estimates of kidney function. March 9, 2021 (

  • 34. Hsu C, Yang W, Parikh RV, et al. Race, genetic ancestry, and estimating kidney function in CKD. N Engl J Med 2021;385:17501760.

  • 35. Levey AS, Tighiouart H, Inker LA. Improving glomerular filtration rate estimation — across the age and diversity spectrum. Ann Intern Med 2020;174:265267.

  • 36. Levey AS, Tighiouart H, Simon AL, Inker LA. Comparing newer GFR estimating equations using creatinine and cystatin C to the CKD-EPI equations in adults. Am J Kidney Dis 2017;70:587589.

  • 37. Stevens LA, Claybon MA, Schmid CH, et al. Evaluation of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in multiple ethnicities. Kidney Int 2011;79:555562.

  • 38. National Kidney Foundation, American Society of Nephrology. Establishing a task force to reassess the inclusion of race in diagnosing kidney diseases. July 2, 2020 (

  • Source link


    Please enter your comment!
    Please enter your name here

    Related Articles